Journal of Cytology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of CT scan on buccal epithelial cells


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KIMS Dental College and Hospital, NH-216, Chaitanya Health City, Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vishwanth Dental and oral Medicine Clinic, Bangalore, India
3 Department of Medical Genetics, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry, India
5 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pillaiyarkuppam, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Santosh Palla,
Oral Medicine and Radiology, KIMS Dental College and Hospital, NH-216, Chaitanya Health City, Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JOC.JOC_120_19

Background: Diagnostic radiation is reported to cause significant damage in buccal cells, while the same effects after natural cell turn over cycle were not checked for in previous studies. The buccal cells were studied in patients exposed to computed tomography (CT) scans for evaluating the cells with micronuclei and cytotoxic changes, namely, pyknotic cells, karyorrhectic cells and karyolytic cells. The pre-exposure counts were compared with postexposure counts on 10 and 20 days corresponding to first and second cell turnover cycles. Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate the counts of micronucleus and cytotoxic changes in buccal cells post-exposure to CT scans and report on variance of the same with first and second buccal cell turnover cycles. Materials and Methods: This is an observational study, wherein the buccal smears of patients undergoing CT scans were made before and after CT scan exposures as needed. Papanicolaou (PAP) staining and analysis were performed as per standard criteria for micronuclear and cytotoxic changes, respectively. Statistical test used was paired t-tests. Results: The micronuclear counts revealed 0.4% positive cells before exposure and 1.4% positive cells post 10 days and 20 days of exposure were significant (P < 0.005). The cytotoxic changes showed around 2.5% positive cells before and 5.7% positive cells 10 days after CT exposure (P < 0.005). The cytotoxic cell values from baseline to 20th day were not significant (P < 0.25). Conclusion: CT scans have caused genotoxic effects notable after two cell turnover cycles but the cytotoxic changes have significantly decreased naturally after 2nd cell turnover as per our study.



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