Journal of Cytology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-30

Efficacy and validity of image-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration and core biopsy of liver pathologies: Saga of focal hepatic lesions from the nodule to the needle to the slide


1 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Post Graduate Student, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Gastroenterology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sridevi Hanaganahalli Basavaiah
Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka - 575 001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JOC.JOC_70_20

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Context: Radiology and pathology are pivotal tools in the investigational artillery for management of wide spectrum of hepatic lesions and early detection is of a paramount importance. Aims: The study aimed at analyzing the efficacy, comparative yield and validity of image-guided aspiration cytology (FNA)/core biopsy (CB) in focal hepatic lesions. Settings and Design: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted in departments of Pathology and Radiology and Imaging of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Cases of focal hepatic lesions that underwent percutaneous image guided-FNA reported (2011-2018) were analyzed. Cytological-histopathological correlation was performed where available. FNA diagnoses were divided into four categories-positive for malignancy (group 1), atypical (group 2), negative for malignancy (group 3), and non-diagnostic (group 4). Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical data was depicted in the form of frequencies and proportions. Validity of percutaneous image-guided FNA diagnosis was collated with the final diagnosis and results were analyzed. Results: A total of 338 FNA of focal hepatic lesions were reported in which 217 (68.2%) cases in group 1; 21 (6.2%) in group 2; 58 (17.2%) in group 3 and 42 (12.4%) in group 4. CB correlation was available in 123 cases. Based on clinical, radiological and pathological findings, conclusive final diagnoses were obtained and the cases were regrouped [malignant cases-245, benign lesions-57 and uncertain lesions-36]. Metastasis was the most common malignancy (175/245; 71.4%). Sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA to categorize the lesion as benign or malignant were 96.94%, 100% and 97.51%, respectively. However, the cytology-histopathology correlation revealed discordance of subtyping the lesion in 20% of cases and sensitivity and specificity reduced to 80% and 50% respectively in rendering the specific diagnosis. Conclusions: Percutaneous image-guided FNA is a sensitive and specific tool with high diagnostic accuracy in evaluating focal hepatic lesions. The study highlights the pre-eminence of interventional radiology and cytology in the care of patients with liver lesions.


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