Journal of Cytology
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   2011| April-June  | Volume 28 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 12, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cell Cannibalism: A cytological study in effusion samples
Cherry Bansal, Vandana Tiwari, US Singh, AN Srivastava, JS Misra
April-June 2011, 28(2):57-60
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80736  PMID:21713148
Background: Cytological examination of effusion fluid is a relatively easy and quick method for the diagnosis of primary or secondary malignancy. Aims: To analyze the cytological significance of cell cannibalism in malignant effusion samples. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 100 cases of malignant effusion was done. These 100 cases included 50 cases of contiguous, local spread to pleural/ascitic fluid. The remaining 50 cases were of disseminated malignancy. Effusions due to hematolymphoid malignancies were excluded. Smears from these cases were assessed for the presence of cell cannibalism, tumor cell within a tumor cell. Results: The cannibalistic cells were more common in effusions with disseminated malignancy (nine out of 50 cases i.e. 18%) compared with cases of contiguous, local spread (two out of 50 cases i.e. 4%). Chi square test showed this difference to be statistically significant (x2 5.005, P=0.025). The majority of the cases were of carcinoma lung (6/11). Cytomorphologically, histiocytes displaying phagocytosis can simulate tumor cells and need to be distinguished. Conclusions: Presence of cell cannibalism in malignant effusions is more often an indicator of disseminated malignancy with secondaries and higher tumor stage. Furthermore, cannibalism may provide a reliable predictor of progression of tumor from primary to the metastatic site.
  5,757 404 6
Quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated normal gingival cells
Punit Vaibhav Patel, Sheela Kumar, Veerendra Kumar, GD Vidya
April-June 2011, 28(2):66-72
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80745  PMID:21713150
Background: The use of oral exfoliative cytology as a diagnostic aid accentuates the need for establishing an accurate baseline, thereby enabling the comparison of abnormal oral tissue with established baseline. Aims and Objective: To detect any changes in the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio (N:C ratio) values for clinically normal gingival smears in relation to age and sex of apparently healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Gingival smears were collected from 80 (40 male, 40 female) apparently healthy subjects belonging to the age group of 0-20, 21-40, 41-60, and more than 60 years. Smear slides were fixed by using spray fixative. The smears were stained using Papanicolaou procedure. The cytoplasmic and NAs were measured using image analysis software. Statistical analysis of the data was done using one-way ANOVA with Tukey-HSD procedure and Student's t test. Results: The result showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.001) in NA, CA, and N:C in males of different age groups. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) in NA, CA, and N:C in females of different age groups. The difference in N:C between males and females was significant (P<0.001) in all the groups. The difference in NA, CA, and N:C with age irrespective of gender was significant (P<0.05). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between males and females with respect to NA, CA, and N:C irrespective of age. Conclusion: Age-and sex-related alterations were observed in gingival smears, which could be a baseline for these variables to compare identical measurements, made on pathologic smears of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.
  4,653 430 8
Needle stick injuries during fine needle aspiration procedure: Frequency, causes and knowledge, attitude and practices of cytopathologists
Neeta Kumar, Prashant Sharma, Shyama Jain
April-June 2011, 28(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80727  PMID:21713146
Background: There is no study available on the frequency, predisposing factors and outcome of needle stick injury (NSI) in cytopathologists who perform fine needle aspiration (FNA). Aim: To know the frequency, circumstances and sequlae of NSI sustained by cytopathologists, assess their knowledge about risks of NSI and attitudes and practices towards use of standard precautions and post-injury wound care. Materials and Methods: Study design: cross sectional. Setting: Tertiary care teaching and non-teaching hospitals and private laboratories. Data collection method: Knowledge, attitude and practices survey using a questionnaire. Results: Majority (90.5%) of the respondents have had NSI in their total career. In the previous year, more than half (71.4%) had at least one NSI (mean 3.2). NSI was the most common in index finger of non-dominant hand (59.6%) and occurred during step two of FNA procedure when the needle was being manipulated within the lump. The major predisposing factors were uncooperative patients (88.9%), small children (54%), deep masses (36.5%), hot humid climate (88.9%), heavy workload (76.2%) and poor administrative arrangement (54%). The adherence to standard precautions was not optimal (74.6%). None of them reported NSI to the authorities, nor investigated source patient or themselves. 82.5% of the respondents were not aware of any formal exposure reporting system in their hospital. Conclusion: Cytopathologists frequently experience NSI while performing FNA. Frequency of injury is also related to patient characteristics and work site factors. Education and motivation for adhering to standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis are often lacking.
  4,480 245 5
CASE REPORTS
Imprint cytology of the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: Correlation with the histological and ultrastructural features
Wonae Lee
April-June 2011, 28(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80749  PMID:21713152
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a unique entity of renal cell carcinoma and has a low malignant potential. A correct cytological diagnosis can help to decide the suitable management and operation. I present here a case with an imprint cytology of ChRCC focusing on the correlation with the histological and ultrastructural features. A 69-year-old male underwent partial nephrectomy and imprint cytology. The cellular smear consisted of predominantly granular eosinophilic cells with round nuclei, a well-defined cytoplasmic membrane and accentuated cell borders. The cytoplasm was characterized by variable granularity with reticulated clearing or vague perinuclear vacuolization. Distinct perinuclear halos were infrequently noted. The histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings were compatible with ChRCC.
  4,589 103 3
Intraparenchymal clear cell ependymoma
Prabal Deb, V Manu, H Pradeep, Harjinder Singh Bhatoe
April-June 2011, 28(2):73-76
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80747  PMID:21713151
Clear cell ependymoma (CCE) is an uncommon variant of ependymoma having a predilection for the supratentorial region. Histologically, it bears an uncanny resemblance to oligodendroglioma, central neurocytoma, hemangioblastoma and metastasis from clear cell carcinoma. Here, we report a rare case of clear cell ependymoma in a 45-year-old male, which histomorphologically resembled anaplastic oligodendroglioma on intraoperative smears, frozen section and routine light microscopy. Immunohistochemistry, however, helped to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Unlike other clear cell tumors of the brain parenchyma, CCE is known to follow an aggressive course and, hence, obtaining a correct diagnosis is imperative since it has a direct therapeutic and prognostic connotation.
  4,002 141 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Her-2 neu (Cerb-B2) expression in fine needle aspiration samples of breast carcinoma: A pilot study comparing FISH, CISH and immunocytochemistry
Kusum Kapila, S Al-Awadhi, IM Francis
April-June 2011, 28(2):54-56
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80731  PMID:21713147
Background: Breast cancers with Her-2 neu gene amplification are recognized as important markers for aggressive disease and targets which respond to therapy with trastuzumab. Her-2 neu testing on histological sections is routinely performed to select patients who may benefit from anti- Her-2 neu therapy. Few reports are available which document Her-2 neu status on fine needle aspirates (FNA). Aim: This pilot study is to document expression of Her-2 neu (Cerb-B2) on cytospin smears from FNA of patients with breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty samples of FNA already collected for diagnostic purposes from patients with primary breast carcinoma were studied for demonstration of Her-2 neu expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) on cytospin smears from FNA. Their expression was compared with tissue sections where possible. Results: Good correlation was observed between Her-2 neu protein expression and gene amplification in cytospin smears. Three of five (60%) breast carcinomas cases with 2+ and 3+ staining on IHC showed gene amplification by FISH and CISH. Three of 7 (43%) and 5 of 7 (71%) cases negative/1+ staining on IHC did not show gene amplification by FISH and CISH respectively. Tissue sections from 10 cases with 2+ and 3+ staining for Her2neu by IHC showed gene amplification in 8 cases. Conclusion: Demonstration of Her-2 neu by IHC, FISH or CISH in FNA is possible and may play a role in the management of patients with advanced breast cancer or those cases where surgical resection is not advisable.
  3,907 234 7
CASE REPORTS
Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tongue
Srinivasa Murthy, C Panduranga
April-June 2011, 28(2):81-83
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80750  PMID:21713153
Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the oral region is rare. Oral manifestation is present in 3-5% of cases of NHL and oral lesions are rarely the initial manifestations. We describe primary NHL, diffuse, mixed, small and large cell type in a 50-year-old female, who presented with mass lesion primarily involving the base of the tongue; initially diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and later confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Pertinent literature is being reviewed.
  3,732 134 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
FNAB of metastatic lesions with special reference to clinicopathological analysis of primary site in cases of epithelial and non-epithelial tumors
Shamshad Ahmad, Kafil Akhtar, Swati Singh, Shahid Siddiqui
April-June 2011, 28(2):61-65
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80740  PMID:21713149
Aims: To ascertain the cytological diagnosis of metastatic lesions with special reference to the clinicopathological analysis of the primary site in cases of epithelial and non-epithelial tumors. Materials and Methods: One hundred seventy-one suspected metastatic lesions were aspirated with a 22-23G needle and the smears were fixed and stained. The cases in which the primary site was not evident at the time of initial presentation were subsequently subjected to thorough physical examination followed by radiological investigations for the search of the primary site. Histopathological examination was performed in 16 cases with inconclusive cytological impression. Observations: Of the total cases of metastatic lesions, 155 cases (90.6%) were diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy and 16 cases (9.4%) by histopathology. The majority of the cases, 81 (47.4%), were observed in the fifth decade of life, followed by 76 cases (44.4%) in the sixth decade and 11 cases (6.4%) in the seventh decade of life. Lymph nodes were the most frequent site of metastasis in 115 cases (67.3%), with the majority in the cervical group. The oropharynx, including the oral cavity and pharyngolarynx, was observed to be the most common primary site, 55 cases (32.2%). Conclusion: The most critical aspect of the evaluation of metastatic cases is the accurate pathologic assessment of the malignant tissues in conjunction with pertinent clinical data. Such close collaboration between the clinician and the pathologist may maximize the diagnostic potential in treatable primary tumors.
  2,971 240 -
CASE REPORTS
Mucinous carcinoma in a male breast
Roopak Aggarwal, Rajni , Geetika Khanna, Shaham Beg
April-June 2011, 28(2):84-86
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80751  PMID:21713154
Male breast cancer is rare as compared to female counterpart. Pure mucinous carcinoma is an extremely rare histological subtype representing less than 1% of male breast cancers. So far very few cases of pure mucinous carcinoma of male breast have been reported in the literature, most of which were diagnosed after surgical resection. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a well-established procedure for the evaluation of female breast masses but the diagnosis of malignancy in aspirates from male breast masses is rare. We herein present one case of mucinous carcinoma of breast in a 75-year-old male diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and confirmed by histopathology. After a follow-up of 12 months the patient is free of any recurrence or metastasis.
  2,840 126 4
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of breast
Sunita Singh, Garima Aggarwal, Sant P Kataria, Rajnish Kalra, Amrita Duhan, Rajeev Sen
April-June 2011, 28(2):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80755  PMID:21713100
  2,789 165 8
Schaumann body in a case of sarcoidosis diagnosed on transbronchial FNAC
Nalini Gupta, Arvind Rajwanshi, Dheeraj Gupta
April-June 2011, 28(2):88-89
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80753  PMID:21713156
  2,817 93 3
Cytologic features of abscessified anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Navarro Antonia, Alvarez Melani, Jose A Jiménez-Heffernan
April-June 2011, 28(2):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80752  PMID:21713155
  2,701 102 -
Presacral chordoma diagnosed by transrectal fine-needle aspiration cytology
Harish S Permi, HL Kishan Prasad, S Veena, S Teerthanath
April-June 2011, 28(2):89-90
DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.80754  PMID:21713157
  2,053 120 2
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