Journal of Cytology
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-33

Cytomorphometric analysis and morphological assessment of oral exfoliated cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals: A comparative study

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Suddha Rustagi College of Dental Science and Research, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Khushboo Sahay
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Suddha Rustagi College of Dental Science and Research, Faridabad, Haryan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-9371.197594

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Context: Oral exfoliative cytology is a simple, nonaggressive technique that is well accepted by patients. Therefore, it is an attractive option, which aids in the diagnosis and observation of epithelial atypias associated with oral mucosal diseases. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quantitative and qualitative alterations in exfoliative smears from type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals. Patients and Methods: The study includes 30 type 2 diabetics and 30 healthy persons of both sexes. PAP and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained smears were prepared from buccal mucosa (BM), tongue (T), floor of the mouth (FOM), and palate (P). Under a light microscope, 50 clearly defined unfolded epithelial cells were quantitatively evaluated for cellular area (CA), nuclear area (NA), and cellular-to-nuclear area ratio (CA:NA) and assessed for morphological features. Statistical Analysis: Collected data was manually entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13.5 for analysis. Student's t-test was used at 95% confidence interval. Results: Quantitative assessment of the overall mean CA was less, mean NA was more, and mean CA:NA was less in diabetics than that in healthy persons at all the four sites. Diabetic oral cells showed qualiative cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations: cytoplasmic vacuoles, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, pyknosis, peri-nuclear halo, binucleation, nuclear vacuoles, inflammation, and microbial colonies. Conclusion: Oral cytology from type 2 diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphological changes with alteration in size of the cell and nucleus, which is site specific, indicating epithelial cell degeneration in cytoplasm and nucleus.

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