Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-ray on buccal epithelial cells following panoramic radiography: A pediatric study
Poonam Agarwal1, Dhundanalli Puttalingaiah Vinuth2, Shashidevi Haranal3, Chandrashekar K Thippanna4, Nitesh Naresh5, Ganapathi Moger6
1 Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, Buraydah Private Dental College, Qassim, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Buraydah Private Dental College, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Oral Surgery, Maharashtra Institute of Dental Sciences Research, Latur, India
4 Department of Periodontics, Hitkarini Dental College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
5 Department of Oral Pathology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
6 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Hitkarini Dental College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
Dhundanalli Puttalingaiah Vinuth
Department of Oral Pathology, Buraydah Private Dental College, Qassim
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic agent capable of inducing both mutation and chromosomal aberrations. Non-lethal doses of ionizing radiation may induce genomic instability favoring carcinogenesis. In spite of their mutagenic potential, this kind of radiation is an important tool for diagnosis of the disease and is used in medical and dental practice. It has been believed that the number of micronucleus and increased frequency of other nuclear alterations, including karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis, are related to the increasing effects of carcinogens. Many approaches and techniques have been developed for the monitoring of human populations exposed to various mutagens, but the analysis of micronuclei (MN) has become a standard approach for the assessment of chromosomal damage in human populations.
Aim: To assess the effects of radiation exposure from panoramic radiography on the buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of pediatric patients.
Materials and Methods: The study included 20 pediatric patients who had to undergo panoramic radiography for further dental treatment. Exfoliated BECs were obtained and examined immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained using rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) kit. Evaluation for MN and nuclear alterations was carried out by an oral pathologist and data were statistically analyzed using the "t" test.
Results: The mean number of MN in the BECs before exposure of pediatric patients to panoramic radiography was 4.25 and after exposure was 4.40. This difference was not found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the mean nuclear alterations of 8.70 and 15.75 before and after exposure were statistically significant (P < 0.0001).
Conclusion: Panoramic radiographs can induce cytotoxicity but not genotoxic effects in buccal mucosal cells. Hence, dental radiographs should be prescribed only when deemed indispensable.