Journal of Cytology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 116-120

Cytomorphological variables of hepatic malignancies in fine needle aspiration smears with special reference to grading of hepatocellular carcinoma


1 Department of Pathology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sharda Balani
A-68, Vijay Nagar, Lalghati, Bhopal - 462 001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9371.112655

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Background: The evaluation and management of discrete hepatic masses is a clinical problem. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, accurate and safe diagnostic procedure that can be used in various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the liver. Aim: To evaluate the cytomorphological features of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed on 52 patients clinically suspected of having hepatic lesion. Results: Malignancy was detected in 50 cases. The primary malignancies consisted of 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 4 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 2 of hepatoblastoma. There were 29 metastatic lesions, which included 26 cases of adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 1 of lymphoma. The key diagnostic features for HCC were trabecular arrangement, polygonal cells with eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei with macronucleoli. Atypical naked hepatocytic nuclei and malignant cells separated by sinusoidal capillaries were also commonly seen. The sensitivity and specificity of FNA for malignancies was found to be 96% and 100% respectively, yielding a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 50%. Conclusions: There was a very good correlation of cytological criteria and histopathological diagnosis in hepatocellular carcinoma of various grades as well as in differentiating primary from metastatic tumors. It is recommended that image directed FNAC should be the primary diagnostic modality for assessing potential malignancy in any patient with a localized hepatic mass.


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