Journal of Cytology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-12

Cytomorphology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A comprehensive morphologic study


1 Department of Pathology, Global Hospitals and Health City, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebarelli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebarelli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
M Vij
Consultant Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Global Hospitals and Health City, Chennai - 600 100, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-9371.107505

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Background: The term gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is used to refer to those mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which express CD117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. Aims: To study the cytological features of GIST and extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGIST), to correlate them with histology and to determine cytological indicators of malignancy. Materials and Methods: Cytological smears from patients diagnosed as GIST/EGIST on histology were retrieved. From Jan 2000 to July 2010, 26 GIST (13 primary, 12 metastatic, one recurrent) and seven EGIST (5 primary, one metastatic, one recurrent) cytologic samples from 27 patients were identified. Results: The patients included 20 males and 7 females with a mean age of 50.6 years. Tumor sites included stomach (5), duodenum (5), ileum (2), ileocecal (1), rectum (1), liver (9), retroperitoneum (5), mesentery (1), subcutaneous nodule (1), supra-penile lump (1), ascitic (1) and pleural fluids (1). The smears were cellular with cohesive to loosely cohesive thinly spread irregularly outlined cell clusters held together by thin calibre vessels. The tumor cells were mild to moderately pleomorphic, spindle to epithelioid with variable chromatin pattern and variable cytoplasm. Cellular dyscohesion, nuclear pleomorphism, intranuclear pseudoinclusions, prominent nucleoli, mitosis and necrosis were more prominent in malignant, metastatic and recurrent tumors. Conclusions: GISTs show a wide spectrum of cytological features and the presence of mitosis, necrosis and nuclear pleomorphism can help in prediction of malignant behavior. Further, cytology is a very useful screening modality in patients of GIST and EGIST to detect early recurrence and metastasis at follow-up.


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